Natalie Savelyeva

Gandharva tradition of music: analysis of jati geetas given in Sangitaratnakara

Importance of grama-murcana-jati system as hard core of Carnatic music

Western music is beyond language. It is not lexical, it could be compared with space and colors (some composers saw our scales in colors, and we all know how strongly feel such features as space, dynamics and movement while listening to classical instrumental music).

Indian music is different. Each note tells its own story. Carnatic music IS LEXICAL. It is like the highest form of language. This is not coincidence that Carnatic compositions give immense importance to Sahityam or lyrics (as one very wise person said, "text based").

Carnatic music in melody-oriented, as the speech itself - the flow of words, each comprising letters, each word having direct and indirect meaning and hidden, implied context.

This is not coincidence that Saraswathi Goddess, whose other name is Vak (speech) is the protector and ruling deity of Indian music. Many Puranic stories tell us the same - the Gods language is music. Siva conveyed meaning of Vedas using seven notes, set in Karahapriya scale.

Carnatic music is extended form of language, able to describe feelings, which have no definition in lexical terms. Music extends the abilities of language by adding new dimensions – intonation, frequency, loudness, duration, consonance, etc, etc. It makes words SOUND, not only denote some object or action. It helps to express inexpressible – ALIVE, FEELING quality of objects, ideas, actions. It makes description ALIVE. Imagine a book which by magic powers is made alive, has some soul and spirit. Imagine how it starts singing its own contents – as if the author himself enacts the story!

This is the major, the most important discovery of mine, thanks to simple theory of grama-murcana-jati contained in Natya Sastra, Dattilam, Brihaddesi, Sangitaratnakara, Sangitasiromany and many other ancient and medieval texts. Nothing is new, but simple basics which are forever new and young, forever shining like stars through the clouds of alternative approaches and fashions.

Major elements of Jati

Definition of jati given in ancient texts, such as Natya Sastra, Dattilam, Sangitaratnakara, etc. is short and exact. The authors emphasize the following features of each jathi:

  • Amsa/graha swara: this parameter defines the major, dominant svara of the song or its Vadi svara. This svara should be used more frequently in the song. Its duration should be longer then duration of the other svaras (i.e. there should be many Sthai Sancari on Amsa svara). This svara is the king of the composition.
  • Apanyasa/nyasa svaras: nyasa svara should be vadi (one octave above or below) or samvadi of Amsa svara (13th or 9th sruti svara of amsa). Samvadi relation depends upon the Grama. In Sadja Grama Sa-Pa, Ri-Da, Ga-Ni, Sa-Ma are major samvadis (Ma-Ni actually could also be considered as samvadi, but there is no agreement between the authors regarding this samvadi pair). In Madhyama Grama major samvadis are Ri-Pa, Ri-Da, Ga-Ni, Sa-Ma (samvadi nature of Ma-Ni is also under question). Apanyasa and nyasa svaras include major samvadis of the particular grama. Samvadi svaras define the mainframe of the composition. Choice of profuse samvadi defines the mood (rasa) evoked by the song. Thus, it is very important to understand the hierarchy and relationships between svaras in the given composition.
  • Alpatva/Bahutva/Sadava/Auduva: there is vadi (the most profuse svara) and samvadi (strong svaras). Among the latter, there could be more strong (bahutva) svaras and less strong. Correspondingly, there should be alpatva (weak svaras), which are used in composition occasionally, as connecting svaras, but are not given any independent part or voice. As there are definite samvadi pairs in each Grama, if one svara in the pair is weak, its samvadi should be also weak. Sadava and Auduva variations are formed by skipping one or both of those Alpatva swaras.
  • Mandra/Tara/Murcana: define the range of melody, which can vary considerably, from the lower notes of mandra, to upper tara sthai. Murcanas for jatis are mentioned only in Sangitaratnakara. Natya Sastra and Dattilam do not define any murcana for each jati. Murcana defines the range of composition in sense it gives the lower limit of the song, in Mandra sthai. The upper limit is usually one and half or even two octaves above mandra (the lowest note). Range of the song should give enough space for sancaris or major melodic patters of the song. Thus, major samvadis of amsa svara in mandra should, as a rule, be included along with major samvadis of madhya sthayi.

1. Sadji Jati

Grama

Parent

Jati

Murchana (according to Sangitaratnakara)

Amsa/

Graha

Apanyasa Nyasa Sadava Auduva Alpatva Bahutva Rasa
Sadja -

Uttarayata

D1 n1 s R1 g1 m1 p

D1,s,g1,m1,p g1,p s n1 - n1, R1 g1

vira, raudra,

adbhuta, sringara

Notes: Sa is separated by one swara from g1 and D1. The major consonants are D1-s-g12 (corresponding intervals in srutis: D1 (6) sa (5) g1).

If g1 is amsa, n1 is its samvadi, thus cannot be dropped in sadava or auduva, i.e. sadava exists only for s,m1,p,D1 amsas.

Sangati (here equal to sancari, or to and fro movement). Kallinatha in his commentrary on Sangitaratnakara (1-7-61) defines the nature of this movement. "Here in sadji the note sadja should be associated with the two notes gandhara and dhaivata, both of which are one note removed from it. The movement should be aesthetically satisfying. The phrase rendered should be either sa ga sa ga sa dha, or ga sa ga sa dha sa."

Sadharana svara is kakali nisada (N1). If sa is Vadi, nisada is Kakali (2 sruti from sa).

Audio example of Sadji jati gita (instrumental)

Analysis of Sadji jati gita

Sadji Jati gita comprises 12 avartanas, 8 matras each. On the picture below we can see how the melody flows. Svaras are represented in different colors (as prescribed in Dattilam, by the way). X axis represents time, and Y axis – frequency of the svara (i.e. position of particular svara in the scale). Thus, we can see how the melody either rises up or flows down. We also can see how long particular svara is rendered (pauses are denoted with gray points), i.e. which svaras are used in Sthai sancari, which are not.

The range of this composition is from Mandra Pa to Tara Sa.

The next picture (upper graph) represents how long particular svara is sung in Sthai (i.e. how long the svara sounds by itself, without mixing up with other svaras). This is very good indicator of relative "profuseness" of each svara. Major (vadi, amsa) svara is used more often, for longer time. Thus, this svara takes its proper "royal" place in the composition. Other major svaras are also very clearly seen. Usually, strong notes are samvadi of Amsa svara, but also could be anuvadi svaras, which give particular "color" to the composition.

Regarding Sadji jati gita, can see that Sa is definitely Amsa and Vadi. Ma is samvadi of Sa, thus Ma is the second important note (in Sadja grama Sa has two samvadis, Pa and Ma, according to ancient tradition Ma is more important, as Bharata Muni says, "ma can never be dropped"). Ga, anyvadi of Sa, is the third major svara of this jati. Ni is samvadi of Ga (in sense Ni is on 13th sruti starting from Ga), so it cannot be skipped as well.

The lower graph represents relationships between different svaras, which helps to understand which svaras are "friends", i.e. follow each other in a melody, and which are not. Thickness and color of connecting lines (thermal color map is chosen, where blue indicates minimal and red indicates maximal value) indicates how often the given pair of svaras is used in the composition.

We can see that in Sadji Gita, the strongest connection is Ga->Sa (exactly as defined in all ancient texts). I would also say that as there is Amsa (king) svara in each composition, the same way there is “king” svara pair, some very salient and important relation which occupies the central place.

Sadji jati gita - melody

Sadji jati gita - major svaras and relations

Sadji jati gita - sancari

What we can see is:

  • Sa (as vadi and amsa) can be used with all other six svaras (in madhya sthai).
  • Pa is used with all svaras except of Ri, it adds positive and stable shade to composition.
  • Ga is used very often, especially in combination with Sa. Ga is usually associated with pathos, compassion and even grief, but here, in combination with stable and clear Sa it gives touch of nostalgia.
  • Ma is used with other majors - Sa, Ga, Pa, Da, and gives soft touch to this composition. In combination with Sa and Pa it gives romantic and happy feeling.
  • Da is located on the “frontier” regions of this jati (as we can see from its corresponding murchana), it is used with Ri and Pa, and especially often in combination with Ni and Sa. This note is associated with fear or compassion, thus here along with nostalgic Ga, it adds some suggestive notes to clear and romantic combination of Sa-Ma-Pa.

Interesting feature is that Ri, being weak note in this jati, is not used as independent svara (in sthai), but it is used very frequently in combinations, specially, as defined in ancient texts, in descending movement of the melody. The same thing we can notice if compare usage of Pa in sthai and sancari – in sthai Pa is not given any part, but it is used in sancaris with all svaras, except of Ri. I would say that weak notes Ri (alpatva in this jati) and Pa are used in sancari as connecting, intermediate svaras.

It is also important to understand characteristic phrases of Jati, i.e. find out particular svara patterns, which can be understood as signatory elements of the given variation of Sadji Jati with Sa as Amsa svara.

Two terms are used by the ancient authors to denote such patterns, Sangati (when svaras are going in sequence, without jumping over) and Sancari, when svaras may go in any order possible.

On the picture below sancaris are arranged by commencing svara (X axis). Svaras are depicted in corresponding colors (as defined in Dattilam).

We can see, that in Sadji jati gita there are two distinct groups of sancaris, "Sa-Ri-Ga" group and "Pa-Da-Ni" group.

In the first group the major svara is Sa. Sa-Ga-Sa interval is outlined many times in the composition, with introduction of Ri in between, starting either from Sa, or from Ri or from Ga.

In the second group the major svaras are Da and Ni, which are outlined either in relation to Pa or in relation to lower svaras, Ri and Ga.

Sancari:

  1. Sa-Ri-Ga, Sa-ri-Ga-Sa, Sa-Ga-Sa, Ri-Ga-Sa, Ri-Ga-Ri-Sa, Ga-Sa-Ri-Ga, Ga-Sa-Da
  2. Ma-Da-Ni, Pa-Da-Ni-Ri-Ga, Da-Ni-Ni, Ni-Da-Pa, Ni-Da-Pa-Da-Ni-Ri-Ga

2. Arisabhi Jati

Grama

Parent

Jati

Murchana (according to Sangitaratnakara)

Amsa/

Graha

Apanyasa Nyasa Sadava Auduva Alpatva Bahutva Rasa
Sadja -

Suddhasadja

p D1 n1 s R1 g1 m1

D1,n1,R1 D1,n1,R1 R1 s s,p p n1

vira, raudra,

adbhuta

Notes: g1-n1 are bi-srutis.

Abhinavagupta in his commentary on Natya Sastra (NS 28, 98) notes two sangatis in this jathi: one between sa and dha and another between ri and ga.

All authors mention p as langana (alpatva) in this jathi. Abhinavagupta also notes that when this jathi is purna (saptatonic), sa, ga, pa are alpa notes. When this jathi is audavita (pentatonic) ga and ma are weak notes.

Audio example of Arisabhi jati gita (instrumental)

Analysis of Arisabhi jati gita

Arisabhi jati gita comprises only 8 avartanas, 8 matras (units) each.

Amsa svara of this composition is definitely Ri. Ma and Pa are secondary strong notes. This gita is rendered in Sadja grama, in range commencing from Mandra Da and up to Tara Sa.

In Arisabhi jati the accent is given to Ri-Ga-Ri. Such combinations as Sa-Ri-Sa and Ga-Ma-Ga are also important here.

Da-Ni-Da combination is the counterpart of Ri-Ga-Ri (naturally, Da being samvadi of Ri and Ni being samvadi of Ga), so it is also used in sancari quite often.

In this particular gita, Ma is given important part as well. It is included in sthai, arohi and avarohi sancari, in combination with Ri and Ga.

Ri is associated with valor or fury. Combination of Ma-Pa is of romantic, dreamy, and soft mood. Ni adds pathetic shade, and Da adds suggestive shade. Thus, i think this particular composition could express something like resentment or argument.

Sancaris are clustered round Ri (starting from Sa-Ri-Ga). There are also some Da-Ni sancaris. Sancaris do not cover wide ranges, they are kind of compact, and roam in range of two-three svaras majorly.

Sancari:

  1. Sa-Ri-Sa-Ri-Ga, Ri-Ga-Ri, Ri-Ga-Ma-Ri, Ga-Ri-ga, Ma-Ga-Ri
  2. Ri-Ma-Ga-Ri-Sa-Da, Ga-Ri-Sa-Da-Sa-Ri-Sa-Ri, Ga-Ri-Sa-Da-Ga-Ri
  3. Da-Ni-Da, Ni-Da-Pa

Arisabhi jati gita - melody

Arisabhi jati gita - major svaras and relations

Arisabhi jati gita - sancari

3. Gandhari Jati

Grama

Parent

Jati

Murchana (according to Sangitaratnakara)

Amsa/

Graha

Apanyasa Nyasa Sadava Auduva Alpatva Bahutva Rasa
Madhyama -

Pauravi

D1 n1 s R1 g1 m1 M2

n1,s,g1,m1,p(M2) s,p(M2) g1 R1 D1,R1 D1,R1 - karuna

Notes: p(M2)-R1 are samvadi. There is no sadava if p(M2) is amsa; and there is no auduva for n1,s,m1,p(M2) amsas.

If Jathi is purna (all seven notes), its characteristic movement is from D1 to R1.

Audio example of Gandhari jati gita (instrumental)

Analysis of Gandhari jati gita

Gandhara jati gita comprises 16 avartanas, 8 matras each. Its range is from Mandra Ni to Tara Sa.

The major svara is definitely Ga reinforced by strong samvadi Ni (in lower octave). This combination brings out pathos, compassion, grief, appeal, resentment in very appealing way.

Ma and Pa (M2 or chatusruti Ma, as this gita is set in Madhyama grama) are other important svaras. They are used with all other svaras. Ma and Pa bear the special “flavor” of Madhyama grama. (This composition in set in Madhyama grama, thus Pa is one sruti less then "normal" Pa, in modern terms such Pa corresponds to M2, chatusruti Ma.) As Ma and Pa are closer to each other then in Sadja grama, the feeling of romance, sweet dreaming mood, happiness is stronger here.

Ni is samvadi of Ga, it is used widely with all notes possible in avarohi. It brings out sad and soft notes of compassion, softening and emphasizing sharp and pathetic Ga at the same time.

The major combination of svaras in this composition is Ri-Ga, i.e. Ri (which is associated with valor, activity, battle, even fury) reinforces natural appeal of Ga. Combinations of Sa-Ga and Ma-Pa (M2) are also very important. Sa and Ga are “contrast” notes. After tranquil and stable Sa, voice of appealing Ga is more clear and its character can be felt more precisely. Ma-Pa, as mentioned above, adds soft notes of sweet romance.

Thus, i would say this composition is very dramatic one. There is some contrast between strong resentment, appeal, even tragedy of Ri-Ga-Ni and soft and nice song of Ma-Pa-Ma. Taken together in sancari, those voices create the whole story, wide palette of deep feelings, and even passions.

Sancaris of Sa-Ga-Ma group, Ga-Ma-Pa-Da-Ni group and Ma-Pa-Da-Ni-Sa (tara) group cover all the range of Madhya sthai with special accent given to strong svaras Ga, Ma and Ni. Da being comparatively weak is nevertheless used profusely in sancari.

Sancari:

  1. Sa-Ga-Ga-Ma, Sa-Ga-Sa-Ga-Ga-Ma-Ga, Ga-Sa-Ga, Ga-Ma-Ga
  2. Ga-Ma-Pa-Da, Ma-Pa-Ri-Ga
  3. Ga-Ga-Ma-Pa-Da-Pa-Ma-Ni, Ma-Pa-Ni-Da-Ni-Sa-Ni-Da

Gandhari jati gita - melody

Gandhari jati gita - major svaras and relations

Gandhari jati gita - sancari

4. Madhyama Jati

Grama

Parent

Jati

Murchana (according to Sangitaratnakara)

Amsa/

Graha

Apanyasa Nyasa Sadava Auduva Alpatva Bahutva Rasa
Madhyama -

Kalopanata

R1 g1 m1 M2 D1 n1 s

R1,m1,p,D1,s R1,m1,p,D1,s m1 g1 g1,n1 g1 s,m1 sringara, hasya

Note: m1 and s are amsas of special profusion. Abhinavagupta explains: "bahutva of sa and ma is self-evident, for they are paryamsas. It should be undestood from special injunction, that they are more then normally strong here."

Even in purna form (septatonic), ga is particularly weak here.

Audio example of Madhyama jati gita (instrumental)

Analysis of Madhyama jati gita

Madhyama jati gita comprises 8 avartanas. It covers the range from Mandra Ni to Tara Ma. This composition is set in Madhyama grama.

Amsa is Ma, which is seen very clearly from the picture below. Sa (samvadi of Ma) is also very strong sthai note in this composition.

Ma is used with all other svaras, including its Vadi (mandra Ma). The second profuse notes are Pa (used with Ma, Da, Ni, Sa) and its samvadi Ri (used with Ni, Ma, Pa). Da is samvadi of Ri, used with Ma, Pa, Ni.

The strong accent is given to Ma-Pa-Ma combination, which brings out bright romantic mood, balanced with some “warning” shades given by Ni-Ri and Ni-Da combinations.

Combination of Ma-Pa-Ma, especially in Madhyama grama, speaks of love and romance. Sringara Rasa is the taste of this composition. Combination of Da-Ni-Da, Da-Ni-Sa adds some sense of space to this composition. Wide sancari like Ma – Ma (upper), Sa-Ga (upper) are used very often is this composition, they help to create joyful, romantic and humorous mood.

Sancari:

Ma-Pa-Ma, Ma-Pa-Da, Da-Ni-Sa

Madhyama jati gita - melody

Madhyama jati gita - major svaras and relations

Madhyama jati gita - sancari

5. Pancami Jati

Grama

Parent

Jati

Murchana (according to Sangitaratnakara)

Amsa/

Graha

Apanyasa Nyasa Sadava Auduva Alpatva Bahutva Rasa
Madhyama -

Kalopanata

R1 g1 m1 M2 D1 n1 s

R1,p(M2) R1,p(M2),n1 p g1 g1,n1 g1,m1,s R1 sringara, hasya

Notes: g1-n1 are consonants. No auduva for R1-amsa.

Sangati of this jathi are between ma and ri. Another minor sangati is between ni and ga. (Sangati in a movement between two notes, when Sancara is movement over many notes).

Audio example of Pancami jati gita (instrumental)

Analysis of Pancami Jati gita

Pancami jati gita comprises only 8 avartanas. Its range is from Mandra Ma to Tara Ma. This gita is set in Madhyama grama.

Interesting feature is, that along with major Amsa Pa, there is another note even more profuse in sthai - tara Ri. The reason is, this composition is in Madhyama grama, which very characteristic feature is Samvadi relation between Ri and Pa. Other major notes are Ga-Ni (samvadi) and Ma-Sa (also samvadi).

The most important pair is (of course) Pa-Ri (that’s why actually only tara Ri is shining here, ascending relation is more strong then descending, thus tara Ri is chosen instead of Madhya Ri). Such combinations of notes as Pa-Da, Ga-Sa, Da-Ni, Ni-Sa, are also very important here.

This gita comprises combination of strong Pa-Ri (plus Pa-Da) along with strong Ma-Pa (along with Ni-Sa) and Ga-Sa. Thus, the character of this gita is strong, heroic and romantic at the same time.

This gitam features multiple svara pairs, but very less sancaris. I would say that in this composition more attention is given to combinations of major samvadi notes. There are many sthai (long notes) and less sancaris.

Sancari: Ma-Da-Ni and Da-Ni-Ni.

Pancami jati gita - melody

Pancami jati gita - major svaras and relations

6. Dhaivati Jati

Grama

Parent

Jati

Murchana (according to Sangitaratnakara)

Amsa/

Graha

Apanyasa Nyasa Sadava Auduva Alpatva Bahutva Rasa
Sadja -

Abhirudgata

R1 g1 m1 p D1 n1 s

R1,D1 R1,m1,D1 D1 p p,s p,s R1,g1,D1

bibhatsa,

bhayanaka, vira

Note: Bharata in Natya Sastra mentions that when this jathi is purna, sa and pa should be employed only in ascent, but otherwise langana should be applied..

Audio example of Dhaivati jati gita (instrumental)

Analysis of Dhaivati jati gita

Dhaivati jati gita comprises 12 avarnatas, in range from Mandra Ri to tara Sa. It is set in Sadja Grama.

Da is the Amsa of this composition. Svaras of samvadi pairs of Sa-Pa, Sa-Ma and Ma-Ni are the other strong notes on this gita. Sa-Pa and Sa-Ma are very characteristic samvadis of Sadja grama. Ni is also strong note, in combination with its samvadi Ma. Ri and Ga are not used in sthai, they are used more in combinations, as linking notes.

The major combination is Da-Ni-Da. Here, Da is colored in sadja grama palette, thus such combinations as Da-Ni, Da-Pa, Ga-Sa are used very often. Other important combinations include Ga-Ma, Pa-Ma, Sa-Ni, Sa-Da, Sa-Ri, Ri-Ga, Ma-Da, Da-Pa, Da-Sa.

I would say that in this composition, two constituents of Sadja grama, i.e. Da-Sa-Ga and Pa-Da-Sa intervals are outlined very well.

Sancari:

  1. Da-Pa-Ma-Da, Da-Da-Ni-Da, Da-Ni-Sa, Ni-Da-Pa
  2. Sa-Ri-Ga-Ri-Ga, Ri-Ga-Sa-Ri-Ga

Dhaivati jati gita - melody

Dhaivati jati gita - major svaras and relations

Dhaivati jati gita - sancari

7. Naisadi Jati

Grama

Parent

Jati

Murchana (according to Sangitaratnakara)

Amsa/

Graha

Apanyasa Nyasa Sadava Auduva Alpatva Bahutva Rasa
Sadja -

Asvakranta

g1 m1 p D1 n1 s R1

g1,n1,R1 g1,n1,R1 n1 p p,s p,s g1,D1,R1

karuna, vira,

adbhuta

Audio example of Naisadi jati gita (instrumental)

Analysis of Naisadi jati gita

Naisadi gita comprises 16 avartanas, in range from Mandra Ma to Tara Pa. It is set in Sadja grama.

Ni is amsa svara, dominating in sthai and sancari. Other strong sthai notes are Ri and Ma.

Here the major combination is Da-Ni. Here, Da is used as an intermediate step for reaching Ni, in order to reinforce the voice of Ni. Ma-Sa, Ma-Ni and even Ma-Ma (mandra) are used often. Such combinations as Ma-Ni and Ga-Ni give special charm to this jati. It is suggestive, as is some secret romantic feelings mixed up with worry and uncertainty are hidden inside this composition.

I also would say this jati would be good for composing lullaby, as it is tender, soft and reflects the nature of motherly feeling towards the child - tender love mixed up with wonder and some worry about its future.

Sancari: Ma-Ri-Ga-Sa-Da and Ni-Sa-Ga

Naisadi jati gita - melody

Naisadi jati gita - major svaras and relations

8. Sadjodicyava Jati

Grama

Parent

Jati

Murchana (according to Sangitaratnakara)

Amsa/

Graha

Apanyasa Nyasa Sadava Auduva Alpatva Bahutva Rasa
Sadja Sadji, Gandhari, Dhaivati

Asvakranta

g1 m1 p D1 n1 s R1

m1,D1,n1,s D1,s m1 R1 R1,p R1 mandra g1, tara s and R1 hasya, sringara

Notes: R1-D1 are samvadi; no sadava and auduva for D1-amsa.

Audio example of Sadjodicyava jati gita (instrumental)

Analysis of Sadjodicyava jati gita

Sadjodicyava gita comprises 12 avartanas, in range from Madra Ga to Tara Ma, set in Sadja grama.

According to ancient texts, Sadjodicyava jati it is combination of Sadji, Gandhari and Dhavati jati. Accordingly, Sa is periya Amsa here. Mandra Ga and Madhya Da are strong sthai notes here. Ma and Pa are also given some independent standing in sthai as major samvadi of Sa in Sadja grama.

Mandra Ga-Madhya Sa is really strong combination here, prevailing over all others, i.e. such pairs likeare Sa-Ga, Ga-Ma, Pa-Da, Da-Ni and Da-Sa.

As conclusion, i would say this jati gita covers wide range, and the strong svaras hold this range as pillars hold the roof of mandapa – Madra Ga to Madhya Sa, then to Madhya Da and to Tara Ma, with characteristic Sadja grama sparks of Ma and Pa in between.

Sancari: Ma-Ga-Pa-Ni-Da-Da-Ni, Pa-Ni-Da, Da-Pa-Da-Pa

Sadjodicyava jati gita - melody

Sadjodicyava jati gita - major svaras and relations

Sadjodicyava jati gita - sancari

9. Sadjakaisiki Jati

Grama

Parent

Jati

Murchana

Amsa/

Graha

Apanyasa Nyasa Sadava Auduva Alpatva Bahutva Rasa
Sadja Gandhari, Sadji ??? s,g,p s,p,n g - - r,m d,n karuna, sringara, hasya

Notes: d,n are more profuse then r,m, but less profuse then s,g,p. The most weak not is ri, ma is also weak.

Audio example of Sadjakaisiki jati gita (instrumental)

Analysis of Sadjakaisiki jati gita

Sadjakaisiki gita compraises 16 avartanas, covers the range from Mandra Sa to Tara Sa, in Sadja grama.

Sadjakaisiki jati is combination of Gandhari and Sadji jatis. Periya amsa here is Sa. Its counterpart is Ga, as in Sadji gita. Ma and Da are also profuse notes in sthai.

Sa-Ma, Sa-Pa, Ri-Da, Ga-Ni are samvadi of Sadja grama. All those notes are given voince in this gita.

Combination of Pa-Da-Pa is the prevalent in this gita along with strong impact of Da-Sa.

Ga, Ma and Da are used with all seven notes, thus play important part as connecting notes in sancari.

Such combinations as Sa-Ri-Sa, Ri-Ga-Ri, Da-Ni-Da outline the major regions in this gita.

Sa-Ga region is very characteristic for sadji jati and Ni-Da region in combination with strong Ma adds tender and subtle touch to this composition (kaisiki means subtle and graceful).

Sancari:

  1. Ri-Sa-Ri, Sa-Ri-Ri-Sa, Sa-Ri-Ga
  2. Ma-Pa-Da, Pa-Pa-Ma-Pa, Pa-Da-Ri
  3. Da-Ni-Da, Da-Pa-Da-Ni

Sadjakaisiki jati gita - melody

Sadjakaisiki jati gita - major svaras and relations

Sadjakaisiki jati gita - sancari

10. Sadjamadhyama Jati

Grama

Parent

Jati

Murchana (according to Sangitaratnakara)

Amsa/

Graha

Apanyasa Nyasa Sadava Auduva Alpatva Bahutva Rasa
Sadja Sadji, Madhyama

Matsarikrita

m1 p D1 n1 s R1 g1

m1,p,D1,n1,s,R1,g1 m1,p,D1,n1,s,R1,g1 m1,s n1 g1,n1 n1 -

sringara,

adbhuta, vira

Notes: g1-n1 are samvadi and bi-srutis; thus there is no sadava and auduva for g1,n1-amsa.

All seven notes are amsas in this jathi (this is the only jathi which has no anamsas, or the notes different from amsas). Thus, all notes are equally strong, and we can move over all notes freely.

Audio example of Sadjamadhyama jati gita (instrumental)

Analysis of Sadjamadhyama jati gita

Sadjamadhyama gita comprises 12 avartanas, in range from Mandra ga to Ta Ma, set in Sadja grama. Sadjamadhyama jati is combination of Sadji and Madhyama jati.

The most profuse svara is Ma, in all three registers. It rises above all other notes in sthai in all three octaves, which is very characteristic feature of this jati.

Sa and Pa (basic samvdi of Sadja grama) are strong as well. There is also slight accent made on Ri.

The most profuse combination here is Da-Pa. Ga-Ma-Ga and Ri-Ga-Ri are also used often.

Ma is the central note here, either in sthai or in sancari, as it is connected with all other notes. Sa and Pa are definitely the ministers of Ma. Sa is used more in arohi, and Pa is used in avarohi and sancari. Ga and Da are used as connecting notes, and help to outline Ma and Pa in relation to other notes.

Sancari:

  1. Ma-Ma-Ga-Ma-Ma, Ri-Ga-Ma, Ma-Ga-Ri-Ga
  2. Pa-Da-Pa-Ma-Ga, Da-Pa-Ma, Ni-Da-Pa, Da-Pa-Da-Pa-Ri-Ri-Ga-Ma

Sadjamadhyama jati gita - melody

Sadjamadhyama jati gita - major svaras and relations

Sadjamadhyama jati gita - sancari

11. Gandharodicyava Jati

Grama

Parent

Jati

Murchana (according to Sangitaratnakara)

Amsa/

Graha

Apanyasa Nyasa Sadava Auduva Alpatva Bahutva Rasa
Madhyama Sadji, Pancami, Dhaivati

Pauravi

D1 n1 s R1 g1 m1 M2

s,m1 s,D1 m1 R1 - R1 mandra g1 sringara, adbhuta, hasya

Notes: R1-D1 are samvadi.

Audio example of Gandharodicyava jati gita (instrumental)

Analysis of Gandharodicyava jati gita

Gandharodicyava gita comprises 16 avartanas, its range is from Madhya Sa to Tara Ni. It is set in Madhyama grama. Gandharodicyava jati is derived from Sadji, Pancami, Dhaivati jatis.

In this gita we can see strong alliance of Sa and Ni, along with strong of Ga and Ma (both being samvadi of Ni).

I would say, that the major frame of Sa-Ga-Ma-Ni with slight touch of Pa (M2)-Da defines the character of this composition. Sa-Ma and Ga-Ni are strong samvadi of Madhyama grama. Ga-Da and Pa(M2)-Da combinations give some “soft and lyrical” taste to this jati.

Major combination of svaras is Ga-Sa, in madhya and tara sthai.

Combination if Ri-Ga-Ni is very strong in both madhya and tara sthai.

The same is Ma-Pa(M2)-Ma. Ma-Ni, Da-Ni, Pa-Da are another set used in both the registers very often.

Sa is the reference svara for ascending movement – many combinations start from lower Sa.

Ni is opposite, it rules over descending movement of melody, as it is connected to lower svaras majorly.

Ma is the “golden middle”, connected with Sa and Ni at the same time.

Ga and Pa play together with Ma, as ensemble, and create smooth and graceful flow of melody from lower Sa to upper Ni.

Ni is connected to many lower svaras, thus it is used in avarohi more.

Sancari:

  1. Sa-Da-Ni, Ma-Da-Ni
  2. Pa-Ri-Ga, Pa-Ma-Pa, Ma-Pa-Ma-Pa-Sa-Ga-Ga
  3. Ga-Ri-Ga-Sa-Sa, Ga-Sa-Ga-Sa

Gandharodicyava jati gita - melody

Gandharodicyava jati gita - major svaras and relations

Gandharodicyava jati gita - sancari

12. Madhyamodicyava Jati

Grama

Parent

Jati

Murchana (according to Sangitaratnakara)

Amsa/

Graha

Apanyasa Nyasa Sadava Auduva Alpatva Bahutva Rasa
Madhyama Gandhari, Pancami, Madhyama, Dhaivati

Sauviri

m1 M2 D1 n1 s R1 g1

p(M2) D1,s m1 - - m1,g1 sringara

Note: Abhinavagupta mentions that ma and ga are used copiously in this jathi.

Audio example of Madhyamodicyava jati gita (instrumental)

Analysis of Madhyamodicyava jati gita

Madhyamodicyava gita comprises 16 avartanas, in range from Mandra Ma to Tara Ni. Madhyamodicyava jati belongs to Madhyama grama, and is derived from Gandhari, Pancami, Madhyama, and Dhaivati jatis.

Interesting thing, that the strongest note in sthai here is Ni along with Ri. Corresnding samvadi Ga and Pa (M2, as it is in Madhyama grama) are also profuse.

The most profuse combination here is Pa-Ri, strong, powerful combination used to portray active, heroic feelings.

Ga-Ni and Pa-Ni in arohi and Ni-Da, Da-Pa, Ni-Pa in avarohi add some pathos, a strong one pathos, mized up with some doubt. Ga-Ni combination is a very definite one, giving very particular feeling of nostalgic, uneasiness, pathetic mood. Being samvadis in both gramas, those two notes cannot be confused with any other combinations. Ri-Pa (M2) is featured samvadi of Madhyama grama. Very strong combination, giving some power, impetus to a composition.

Ma-Pa-Ma combination adds some soft romantic note to this composition.

I would say, that this jati gita is built on those two major colors, Ga-Ni and Ri-Pa.

Sancari of this gita outline two major ranges, Sa-Ri-Ga and Ma-Pa-Da-Ni.

Sancari:

  1. Ri-Ga-Ga, Ri-Ga-Sa
  2. Ma-Pa-Da, Pa-Ma-Pa, Pa-Ri-Ga, Ni-Da-Pa-Ma-Ni-Da-Ni-Da, Ni-Da-Pa, Ni-Ma-Pa

Madhyamodicyava jati gita - melody

Madhyamodicyava jati gita - major svaras and relations

Madhyamodicyava jati gita - sancari

13. Gandharapancami Jati

Grama

Parent

Jati

Murchana (according to Sangitaratnakara)

Amsa/

Graha

Apanyasa Nyasa Sadava Auduva Alpatva Bahutva Rasa
Madhyama Gandhari, Pancami

Harinasva

g1 m1 M2 D1 n1 s R1

p(M2) R1,p(M2) g1 - - - - sringara, hasya, karuna

Notes: g1-p(M2) are samvadi.

Sancaras of these jathi are taken from Gandhari and Pancami jathis: dha to ri (gandhari), ma to ri (predominant sancari of pancami jathi), and ni to ga (secondary sancari of pancami jathi).

Audio example of Gandharapancami jati gita (instrumental)

Analysis of Gandharapancami jati gita

Gandharopancami gita comprises of 16 avartanas, in the range from Mandra Ma to Tara Ri. Gandharopancami jati belongs to Madhyama grama and is combination of Andhri and Pancami jatis.

There are three major, well arranged, well seen samvadi in this gita: first place takes Ga-Ni, second - Ri-Pa, third - Sa-Ma. Just brilliant and extremely well balanced combination. It conveys very special and deep mood of Ga-Ni pair (pathetic, contemplative, deep and touching) by adding strong, powerful shades of Ri-Pa at the side, and soft, clear and tender touch of Sa-Ma at the other side.

Pathetic soft Ga-Ma, pathetic deep Ga-Ni and worried sad Da-Ni, strong and definite Da-Pa and soft pleasing Ma-Pa-Ma are the major combinations in this composition.

Interesting feature is, that Da-Pa dominates over all other combination, through Da is not very string in sthai here.

I would say, this composition speaks of something irreplaceable, some major loss. There is strong feeling of regret, mixed up with some ambivalent feelings, very characteristic for deeply feeling, strong human characters. Even sancari tell us some story.

Major sancari are wide, spread from Sa to Ni and back, as if asking some silent question. Another group of sancari comprises Ma-Pa-Ma giving some hint to romantic nature of the problem, described here.

Sancari:

  1. Sa-Ni-Ni-Da-Pa, Da-Ni-Sa, Da-Ni-Da-Pa, Ni-Ni-Da-Pa, Ni-Da-Pa-Ma, Ni-Ga-Sa
  2. Ma-Pa-Ma, Pa-Ma-Pa, Pa-Ma-Pa-Ma, Pa-Ma-Ni-Da

Gandharapancami jati gita - melody

Gandharapancami jati gita - major svaras and relations

Gandharapancami jati gita - sancari

14. Raktagandhari Jati

Grama

Parent

Jati

Murchana (according to Sangitaratnakara)

Amsa/

Graha

Apanyasa Nyasa Sadava Auduva Alpatva Bahutva Rasa
Madhyama Gandhari, Pancami, Naisadi

Kalopanata

R1 g1 m1 M2 D1 n1 s

g1,m1,p,n1,s m1 g1 R1 R1,D1 D1,n1 sringara, hasya

Notes: s is samvadi with m1 and pa; g1 is samvadi with ni1.

The special movement in this jathi is from sa to ga, without sounding ri (Bharata). Abhinava also mentions that ri should be skipped in moving from sa to ga and back, thus bringing these two notes together.

Audio example of Raktagandhari jati gita (instrumental)

Analysis of Raktagandhari jati gita

Raktagandhari jati gita comprises 12 avartanas, in range from Mandra Ma to Tara Ni. Raktagandhari jati belongs to Sadja grama and is derived from Gandhari, Pancami and Naisadi jatis.

In this jati gita we can see very strong alliance of Pa as ruler, Ma as major samvadi of Sadja grama along with secondary profuse Ga and unavoidable balancing Sa, as the basement.

The major combination is Ga-Ma. Ma-Pa and Ni-Pa outline the fledges and shades of strong and definite Pa. Ma-Pa-Ma gives clear and sound basement and spirit of Sadja grama to this composition. Ni-Pa brings in shade of question, or may be avoidance.

Pa is definitely the central note here – in sthai and in combinations, It sounds along with majority of the notes, and moreover, the range of the composition includes both vadi of Pa (Mandra Pa and Tara Pa), thus making preeminence of Pa even more salient.

Voice of Ga is also very strong here, in Madhya and Tara registers. Ga cooperates with Sa and Ma, thus giving different shades of mood to this powerful composition. "Rakta" means "red", i.e. here, Gandhari sounds in strong, bright manner, reinforced by powerful alliance with Sa and Pa and softened at the other side by clear and stable Ma.

Sancari:

  1. Da-Ni-Pa-Ma-Pa, Ma-Pa-Da-Pa-Ma
  2. Ga-Ma-Pa, Pa-Ma-Ga-Ma, Pa-Ma-Pa, Ma-Pa-Ma-Pa

Raktagandhari jati gita - melody

Raktagandhari jati gita - major svaras and relations

Raktagandhari jati gita - sancari

15. Kaisiki Jati

Grama

Parent

Jati

Murchana (according to Sangitaratnakara)

Amsa/

Graha

Apanyasa Nyasa Sadava Auduva Alpatva Bahutva Rasa
Madhyama Sadji, Gandhari, Madhyama, Pancami, Naisadi

Harinasva

g1 m1 M2 D1 n1 s R1

g1,m1,p(M2),

D1,n1,s

g1,m1,p(M2),

D1,n1,s/R1

g1,p(M2),n1 R1 R1,D1 R1 n1,p(M2) sringara, hasya

Notes: no sadava, auduva for p,D1-amsas.

p(M2) is Nyasa if n1,D1 are amsas, and g1,p(M2),n1 are Nyasas if R1,g1,m1,p(M2),s are amsas.

In this jathi pa and ni are stronger in relation to the other amsas.

Bharata says that sancara in this hathi is like in sadjamadhyama jathi, where all the notes are amsas, so sancara may include any notes in free order. This jathi comprises six amsas, thus sancara advised by Abhinava is like in sadjamadhyama jathi with da amsa.

Audio example of Kaisiki jati gita (instrumental)

Analysis of Kaisiki jati gita

Kaisiki jati gita comprises 12 avartanas, its range is from Mandra Ma to Tara Ni. It belongs to Madhyama grama, and is derived from Sadji, Gandhari, Madhyama, Pancami, and Naisadi jatis.

All svaras are amsas in this jati.

In this particular gita, Ga is amsa, while Ma is graha svara. All seven svaras are given strong voice in this gita. Ga is the king, its samvadi Ni is the minister. Ri is very strong along with its samvadi Pa (M2, as it is Madhyama grama). Sa is strong as well along with its “perfoect” samvadi Ma.

Ga and Ni are very active in combinations also. Ga is connected majorly to upper svaras (i.e. used in arohi), and Ni – with lower svaras, i.e. more active in avarohi.

Ni-Ga combination itself is the leading combination of this song. Ri-Sa and Da-Ni are the central combination of two major wings of this composition – lower wing comprising Sa-Ga group of sancaris, which serves as the basement, and the upper wing – comprising Da-Ni-Sa relation, which is important here, since the name of this jati (Kaisiki) gives the hint to importance of sadharana Ni (kaisiki Ni), i.e. the range between Da and Sa is given more attention, investigated in detail, using subtle and fine kaisiki Ni to show shades of this beautiful, deep and so verstile note of Ni.

This is very powerful, flexible and versatile jati. Very close to those ragas which nowadays we call “rakti” ragas, i.e. the ragas giving more tools for portraying Sringara rasa using all possible shades of human feelings. I would also say, that this particular song is very colorful and demonstrates many shades of Ga svara.

Sancari: Ga-Ri-Sa-Da, Ma-Ni-Da-Ni, Pa-Da-Ni, Da-Ni-Ma

Kaisiki jati gita - melody

Kaisiki jati gita - major svaras and relations

Kaisiki jati gita - sancari

16. Karmaravi Jati

Grama

Parent

Jati

Murchana (according to Sangitaratnakara)

Amsa/

Graha

Apanyasa Nyasa Sadava Auduva Alpatva Bahutva Rasa
Madhyama Naisadi, Arisabhi, Pancami

Suddhamadhya

s R1 g1 m1 M2 D1 n1

R1,p(M2),D1,n R1,p(M2),D1,n p(M2) - - - g1 karuna, adbhuta, sringara

In this jathi predominant note is ga, which is not amsa. Bharata, Dattila, Abhinavagupta note that in this jathi movement starting from any note, amsa or anamsa, should be finished on ga.

Kallinatha expalins, that in the context of this jathi, in antaramarga the notes emphasized in sthai varna are amsas, and those emphasized in sancari varnas are non-amsas.

Audio example of Karmaravi jati gita (instrumental)

Analysis of Karmaravi jati gita

Karmaravi jati gita comprises 16 avartanas, its range is from Mandra Ma ro Tara Pa. Karmaravi jati are in Madhyama grama, derived from Naisadi, Arisabhi and Pancami jatis.

There are two major pillar-svaras, Ri and Ni. Amsa and graha is Ri.

Pa (M2, samvadi of Ri as it is Madhyama grama) and Ga (samvadi of Ni) are secondary strong notes here.

Sa-Ma samvadi combination also is present, slightly alternating strong and powerful Ri-Pa and pathetic trembling Ga-Ni combinations. Sa-Ma adds some serene and balanced shade to this composition.

The major combination here is Sa-Ni, it stands apart of others and defines the mood of the song. Ma-Pa-Ma is the next important combination, it adds soft, appealing shade. Ri-Ga-Ri and Da-Ni-Da (in my opinion) are the next important "speakers" here. They are similar in sense of mood (question, charged request), but different in sense of intensity - Ri-Ga-Ri is inner, half-hidden, with some uncertainty or doubt, and Da-Ni-Da is more open, loud, more desperate I would say. Together they show dynamic nature of this composition very well, along with dominating wide, intense and charged Sa-Ni combination.

Ga and Ni are used with all other svaras, Ga is used more in arohi, Ni - in avarohi. Sa nad Pa (M2, as it is Madhyama grama) are used with major svaras, adding stability, giving more power and exactness to each counterpart svara.

Sancari:

  1. Ma-Pa-Ma-Pa-Ri-Ga-Ga, Pa-Ma-Pa
  2. Da-Ni-Pa, Da-Sa-Ga

Karmaravi jati gita - melody

Karmaravi jati gita - major svaras and relations

Karmaravi jati gita - sancari

17. Andhri Jati

Grama

Parent

Jati

Murchana (according to Sangitaratnakara)

Amsa/

Graha

Apanyasa Nyasa Sadava Auduva Alpatva Bahutva Rasa
Madhyama Gandhari, Arisabhi

Sauviri

m1 M2 D1 n1 s R1 g1

p(M2),n1,R1,g1 p(M2),n1,R1,g1 g1 s - s D1,n1 vira, raudra, adbhuta, sringara

Notes: Sancara mentioned by Bharata is between ga and ri.

Audio example of Andhri jati gita (instrumental)

Analysis of Andhri jati gita

Andhri jati gita comprises 16 avartanas, its range is from Mandra Ma to Tara Pa. Andhri jati is set in Madhyama grama, and derived from Gandhari and Arisabhi jatis.

The first thing which is seen about Andhri jati is, that it IS derived from Arisabhi and Gandhari. Ri and Ga are the most profuse in sthai, moreover, Ri-Ga and Ga-Ri combinations are dominating over the other svara pairs. Ni is samvadi of Ga, thus Ni is strong in sthai and used in combinations with all major notes.

Samvadi pair of Sa and Ma is slightly present in sthai. In combinations, Sa is used majorly in arohi.

Combination Ri-Ga-Ri is so strong, that pushes back all other combinations. Still, Ni-Ga and Ga-Ni are comparatively fluent.

The mood of this song is strong, rich, deep pathos. Combination Ri-Ga with lower (kakali) Ni as upper echo of pathetic Ga is one of the most beautiful combinations in Carnatic Music. Such ragas as Durbar, Sri inherited all splendor of this combination. Sancari of this song demonstrate the splendor and deep meaning of Ri-Ga.

Sancari:

  1. Ma-Pa-Ma-Ri-Ga-Ga
  2. Ri-Ri-Ga, Ri-Ga-Sa, Ri-Ga-Ri, Ri-Ga-Ga, Ga-Ri-Ga, Ga-Ri-Ri-Ga-Ri

Andhri jati gita - melody

Andhri jati gita - major svaras and relations

Andhri jati gita - sancari

18. Nandayanti Jati

Grama

Parent

Jati

Murchana (according to Sangitaratnakara)

Amsa/

Graha

Apanyasa Nyasa Sadava Auduva Alpatva Bahutva Rasa
Madhyama Arishabhi, Pancami, Gandhari

Hrisayaka

M2 D1 n1 s R1 g1 m1

p(M2)-amsa

g1,p(M2)-graha

m1,p(M2) g1 s - s,R1 mandra g1 and R1 sringara, hasya, karuna

Notes: In this jathi mandra ri should be used frequentry. At the other side, melody should not rise above tara sa.

Audio example of Nandayanti jati gita (instrumental)

Analysis of Nandayanti jati gita

Nandayanti jati gita is the longest one, comprise 32 avartanas. Its range is from Mandra Ri to Tara Ri.

Nandayanti jati belongs to Madhyama grama, and is derived from Arishabhi, Pancami, Gandhari jatis.

Ga, Ma, Pa are three pillars of this gita. They are strong in sthai, and in combinations as well.

Ga is strong in arohi, Ma, Pa come along with all other notes.

Ni is samvadi of Ga, thus also comparatively strong in sthai and very useable in avarohi.

Ri is samvadi with Pa (M2) and Da, thus Ri and Da are also given some place in sthai, through in combinations Ri is majorly used as counterpart of profuse and powerful Ga.

Da is used more often, as it connects important areas of Ma-Pa with strong Ni and serves as a bridge to Tara sthai svaras.

So, the key combinations are Ga-Ma and Ma-Pa-Ma, they define the mood and tone of the song. Other important combinations are Pa-Da and Da-Ni-Da.

I would say that in this gita the accent is made of Ga and Pa-Ma in sthai, and on arohi featuring Ri-Ga at and Pa-Da-in combinations. This is very balanced, powerful rakti composition. It emphasizes polarities - contempt, worry of Ga-Ma with hope of Pa-Da-Ni. And all this mess of feelings is revolving round stable center of heart-touching, romantic Ma-Pa.

Sancari:

  1. Pa-Da-Ni-Ma-Pa-Ga, Da-Ni-da-Pa
  2. Ri-Ga-Ma-Pa, Ga-Ma-Pa, Ma-Pa-Ri-Ga
  3. Ma-Pa-Da, Pa-Ma-Pa, Pa-Da-Ma, Da-Pa-Ma

Nandayanti jati gita - melody

Nandayanti jati gita - major svaras and relations

Nandayanti jati gita - sancari

References

Rasa is associated with jatis as described in (7), Sangitasiromani: A Medieval Handbook of Indian Music ed, by Emmie Te Nijenhuis.

For detailed information see Expression of rasa via sruti, svara and jati.

  1. The Natyasastra. English translation with critical Notes by Adya Rangacharya, Munishiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2010.
  2. Dattilam by Mukund Lath, Motilal Banarsidass Pvt. Ltd., 1990.
  3. A Study of Dattilam : a treatise on the sacred music of ancient India /Mukund Lath, Impex India, New Delhi, 1978.
  4. The Development of Musical Tuning Systems By Peter A. Frazer (http://www.midicode.com/tunings/index.shtml#Contents)
  5. S. Vidyasankar Derivation of the 22 Srutis (http://www.carnaticcorner.com/articles/22_srutis.htm)
  6. Dattilam: A Compendium of Ancient Indian Music by Emmie Te Nijenhuis, E.J.Brill, Netherlands, 1970.
  7. Sangitasiromani: A Medieval Handbook of Indian Music edited by Emmie Te Nijenhuis, E.J.Brill, Netherlands, 1992.
  8. Saringadeva. Sangitaratnakara. English & Sanskrit. English translation by R. K. Shringy, under the supervision of Prem Lata Sharma, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1978.
  9. V. Raghavan (ed.), The Sangitasudha of King Raghunatha, Madras, 1940.
  10. Grama Murcchana Jati by Premalatha Nagarajan
  11. The Traditional Indian Theory and Practice of Music and Dance By Jonathan Katz (Editor), Publisher: brill academic publishers (Sep 1992)
  12. Influence of Sastra on prayoga: the svara system in the post-Sangitaratnakara period with special reference to south Indian music By N. Ramanathan
  13. Sangitasiromani: A Medieval Handbook of Indian Music edited by Emmie Te Nijenhuis, E.J.Brill, Netherlands, 1992
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