Natalie Savelyeva

Gandharva tradition of music: definition of tana

According to Natya Sastra (Chapter XXVIII, Sloka 33), tanas which depend on murchanas are 84; of these, 49 are of six svaras and 35 are of five svaras.

Tana-s of six svaras (sadavatana) are of seven types:

  • four without sadja,
  • four without risabha,
  • four without nisada and
  • four without pancama

There are in sadja grama.

Sadja grama Omitted svara
Murchanas sadja risabha nisada pancama
1 Uttaramandra R g m p D n s g m p D n s R g m p D s R g m D n
2 Rajani n R g m p D n s g m p D s R g m p D n s R g m D
3 Uttarayata D n R g m p D n s g m p D s R g m p D n s R g m
4 Suddhasadja p D n R g m p D n s g m p D s R g m D n s R g m
5 Matsarikrita m p D n R g m p D n s g m p D s R g m D n s R g
6 Asvakranta g m p D n R g m p D n s g m p D s R g m D n s R
7 Abhirudgata R g m p D n g m p D n s R g m p D s R g m D n s

In madhyama grama there are:

  • three without sadja,
  • three without risabha and
  • three without gandhara.
Madhyama grama Omitted svara
Murchanas sadja risabha gandhara
8 Sauviri m p D N R G m p D N s G m p D N s R
9 Harinasva G m p D N R G m p D N s m p D N s R
10 Kalopanata R G m p D N G m p D N s R m p D N s
11 Suddhamadhya R G m p D N s G m p D N s R m p D N
12 Margi N R G m p D N s G m p D N s R m p D
13 Pauravi D N R G m p D N s G m p D N s R m p
14 Hrisyaka p D N R G m p D N s G m p D N s R m

Thus these tana-s of six svaras in all murchanas together are 4 x 7 + 3 x 7 = 49.

Tana-s of five svaras (auduvatana) are of five types only. In sadja grama they are:

  • without sadja - pancama
  • without risabha-pancama
  • without nisada-gandhara
Sadja grama Omitted svaras
Murchanas sadja - pancama risabha-pancama nisada-gandhara
1 Uttaramandra R g m D n s g m D n s R m p D
2 Rajani n R g m D n s g m D s R m p D
3 Uttarayata D n R g m D n s g m D s R m p
4 Suddhasadja D n R g m D n s g m p D s R m
5 Matsarikrita m D n R g m D n s g m p D s R
6 Asvakranta g m D n R g m D n s m p D s R
7 Abhirudgata R g m D n g m D n s R m p D s

In madhyama grama they are:

  • without gandhara-nisada
  • without risabha-dhaivata
Sadja grama Omitted svaras
Murchanas risabha-dhaivata gandhara-nisada
8 Sauviri m p N s G m p D s R
9 Harinasva G m p N s m p D s R
10 Kalopanata G m p N s R m p D s
11 Suddhamadhya s G m p N s R m p D
12 Margi N s G m p s R m p D
13 Pauravi N s G m p D s R m p
14 Hrisyaka p N s G m p D s R m

In this way, the tana-s of five svaras in all murchanas are 5 x 7 = 35, and all 84 tanas comprise 49 Sadavatana-s and 35 auduvatana-s.

References

  1. The Natyasastra. English translation with critical Notes by Adya Rangacharya, Munishiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2010
  2. Dattilam by Mukund Lath, Motilal Banarsidass Pvt. Ltd., 1990
  3. Grama Murcchana Jati by Premalatha Nagarajan
  4. The Traditional Indian Theory and Practice of Music and Dance By Jonathan Katz (Editor), Publisher: brill academic publishers (Sep 1992)
  5. Influence of Sastra on prayoga: the svara system in the post-Sangitaratnakara period with special reference to south Indian music By N. Ramanathan
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